IMPORTANT: Per accedir als fitxer de subversion: http://acacha.org/svn (sense password). Poc a poc s'aniran migrant els enllaços. Encara però funciona el subversion de la farga però no se sap fins quan... (usuari: prova i la paraula de pas 123456)

ETHERNET

HARDWARE

COMANDA LSPCI

  • Per veure tots els perifèrics.
[email protected]:~$ lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI Radeon Xpress 200 Host Bridge (rev 01)
00:01.0 PCI bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI RS480 PCI Bridge
00:12.0 SATA controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 Non-Raid-5 SATA
00:13.0 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI0)
00:13.1 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI1)
00:13.2 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI2)
00:13.3 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI3)
00:13.4 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI4)
00:13.5 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB Controller (EHCI)
00:14.0 SMBus: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SBx00 SMBus Controller (rev 13)
00:14.1 IDE interface: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 IDE
00:14.2 Audio device: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SBx00 Azalia (Intel HDA)
00:14.3 ISA bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 PCI to LPC Bridge
00:14.4 PCI bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SBx00 PCI to PCI Bridge
01:05.0 VGA compatible controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI RC410 [Radeon Xpress 200]
0c:04.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL-8110SC/8169SC Gigabit Ethernet (rev 10)
0c:05.0 FireWire (IEEE 1394): Texas Instruments TSB43AB23 IEEE-1394a-2000 Controller (PHY/Link)
0c:07.0 Network controller: Ralink corp. RT2561/RT61 rev B 802.11g

North Bridge

  • Bus ràpit (prop de la CPU, RAM,etc...)

South Bridge

  • Bus més lent (Targetes PCI, memòria física)

Per veure la targeta de xarxa:

[email protected]:~$ lspci | grep Ethernet
[email protected]:~$ lspci | grep Ethernet
0c:04.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL-8110SC/8169SC Gigabit Ethernet (rev 10)

(Ojo és el fabricant del xip no del hardware)

Fabricants Hardware targetes:

  • Realteck
  • Intel
  • Asus
  • Marvel

Una cosa es el Hardware (hi ha molts fabricants)

[email protected]:~$ lspci -vv
00:00.0 Host bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI Radeon Xpress 200 Host Bridge (rev 01)
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10cc
       Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64
       Region 3: Memory at e0000000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=512M]
       Kernel modules: ati-agp

00:01.0 PCI bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI RS480 PCI Bridge (prog-if 00 [Normal decode])
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 99
       Bus: primary=00, secondary=01, subordinate=01, sec-latency=70
       I/O behind bridge: 00009000-00009fff
       Memory behind bridge: d0000000-d00fffff
       Prefetchable memory behind bridge: c0000000-cfffffff
       Secondary status: 66MHz+ FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ <SERR- <PERR-
       BridgeCtl: Parity- SERR- NoISA+ VGA+ MAbort- >Reset- FastB2B-
               PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel modules: shpchp

00:12.0 SATA controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 Non-Raid-5 SATA (prog-if 01 [AHCI 1.0])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10f5
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 22
       Region 0: I/O ports at 01f0 [size=8]
       Region 1: I/O ports at 03f4 [size=1]
       Region 2: I/O ports at 0170 [size=8]
       Region 3: I/O ports at 0374 [size=1]
       Region 4: I/O ports at 8400 [size=16]
       Region 5: Memory at d040a000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=1K]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: ahci

00:13.0 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI0) (prog-if 10 [OHCI])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 16
       Region 0: Memory at d0404000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
       Kernel driver in use: ohci_hcd

00:13.1 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI1) (prog-if 10 [OHCI])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin B routed to IRQ 17
       Region 0: Memory at d0405000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
       Kernel driver in use: ohci_hcd

00:13.2 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI2) (prog-if 10 [OHCI])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin C routed to IRQ 18
       Region 0: Memory at d0406000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
       Kernel driver in use: ohci_hcd

00:13.3 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI3) (prog-if 10 [OHCI])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin B routed to IRQ 17
       Region 0: Memory at d0407000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
       Kernel driver in use: ohci_hcd

00:13.4 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB (OHCI4) (prog-if 10 [OHCI])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin C routed to IRQ 18
       Region 0: Memory at d0408000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
       Kernel driver in use: ohci_hcd

00:13.5 USB controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB Controller (EHCI) (prog-if 20 [EHCI])
       Subsystem: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 USB Controller (EHCI)
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin D routed to IRQ 19
       Region 0: Memory at d040a400 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=256]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: ehci_hcd

00:14.0 SMBus: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SBx00 SMBus Controller (rev 13)
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster- SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Region 0: I/O ports at 8410 [size=16]
       Region 1: Memory at d0409000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=1K]
       Kernel driver in use: piix4_smbus
       Kernel modules: sp5100_tco, i2c-piix4

00:14.1 IDE interface: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 IDE (prog-if 8f [Master SecP SecO PriP PriO])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem- BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 16
       Region 0: I/O ports at 8440 [size=8]
       Region 1: I/O ports at 8434 [size=4]
       Region 2: I/O ports at 8438 [size=8]
       Region 3: I/O ports at 8430 [size=4]
       Region 4: I/O ports at 8420 [size=16]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: pata_atiixp
       Kernel modules: pata_atiixp

00:14.2 Audio device: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SBx00 Azalia (Intel HDA)
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10cf
       Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=slow >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 16
       Region 0: Memory at d0400000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel
       Kernel modules: snd-hda-intel

00:14.3 ISA bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SB600 PCI to LPC Bridge
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d1
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle+ MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 0

00:14.4 PCI bridge: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI SBx00 PCI to PCI Bridge (prog-if 01 [Subtractive decode])
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap- 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64
       Bus: primary=00, secondary=0c, subordinate=0c, sec-latency=64
       I/O behind bridge: 0000a000-0000afff
       Memory behind bridge: d0100000-d01fffff
       Secondary status: 66MHz- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ <SERR- <PERR-
       BridgeCtl: Parity- SERR+ NoISA+ VGA- MAbort- >Reset- FastB2B-
               PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-

01:05.0 VGA compatible controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI RC410 [Radeon Xpress 200] (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10cc
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 66 (2000ns min), Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 17
       Region 0: Memory at c0000000 (32-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
       Region 1: I/O ports at 9000 [size=256]
       Region 2: Memory at d0000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=64K]
       [virtual] Expansion ROM at d0020000 [disabled] [size=128K]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: radeon
       Kernel modules: radeon
 
0c:04.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL-8110SC/8169SC Gigabit Ethernet (rev 10)
       Subsystem: Fujitsu Technology Solutions Device 10d0
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64 (8000ns min, 16000ns max), Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 23
       Region 0: I/O ports at a000 [size=256]
       Region 1: Memory at d0100000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=256]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: r8169
       Kernel modules: r8169
 
0c:05.0 FireWire (IEEE 1394): Texas Instruments TSB43AB23 IEEE-1394a-2000 Controller (PHY/Link) (prog-if 10 [OHCI])
       Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64 (500ns min, 1000ns max), Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 20
       Region 0: Memory at d0100800 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=2K]
       Region 1: Memory at d0104000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: firewire_ohci
       Kernel modules: firewire-ohci

0c:07.0 Network controller: Ralink corp. RT2561/RT61 rev B 802.11g
       Subsystem: D-Link System Inc AirPlus G DWL-G510 Wireless Network Adapter (Rev.C)
       Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV+ VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
       Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=slow >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
       Latency: 64, Cache Line Size: 32 bytes
       Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 21
       Region 0: Memory at d0108000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=32K]
       Capabilities: <access denied>
       Kernel driver in use: rt61pci
       Kernel modules: rt61pci

SOFTWARE

MAC

[email protected]:~$ ifconfig eth2
eth2      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:30:05:eb:3b:44  
          inet addr:192.168.204.118  Bcast:192.168.204.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fe80::230:5ff:feeb:3b44/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:183298 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:102644 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:269647374 (269.6 MB)  TX bytes:7628968 (7.6 MB)
          Interrupt:23 Base address:0x8000 

COM OBTENIR LA MAC D'UNA MAQUINA REMOTA

[email protected]:~$ ping 192.168.204.1
PING 192.168.204.1 (192.168.204.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.204.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.174 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.172 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.1: icmp_req=3 ttl=64 time=0.168 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.1: icmp_req=4 ttl=64 time=0.160 ms
^C
--- 192.168.204.1 ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 2999ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.160/0.168/0.174/0.014 ms
[email protected]:~$ arp -n
Address                  HWtype  HWaddress           Flags Mask            Iface
192.168.204.1            ether   d4:ca:6d:20:8f:7f   C                     eth2



Intalem el traceroute: [email protected]:~$ sudo apt-get install traceroute

per tota la xarxa: nmap

[email protected]:~$ sudo nmap 192.168.204.1-255

Starting Nmap 5.21 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-10-19 16:45 CEST
Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.1
Host is up (0.00013s latency).
Not shown: 994 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
21/tcp   open  ftp
23/tcp   open  telnet
53/tcp   open  domain
2000/tcp open  cisco-sccp
8081/tcp open  blackice-icecap
8291/tcp open  unknown
MAC Address: D4:CA:6D:20:8F:7F (Unknown)

Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.2
Host is up (0.00015s latency).
Not shown: 994 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
53/tcp   open  domain
80/tcp   open  http
389/tcp  open  ldap
3128/tcp open  squid-http
5666/tcp open  nrpe
MAC Address: B6:2B:74:E5:3D:12 (Unknown)

Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.89
Host is up (0.000056s latency).
Not shown: 998 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
5800/tcp open  vnc-http
5900/tcp open  vnc
MAC Address: 00:30:05:EB:3F:61 (Fujitsu Siemens Computers)

Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.94
Host is up (0.21s latency).
Not shown: 999 closed ports
PORT   STATE SERVICE
80/tcp open  http
MAC Address: 00:08:54:A6:7A:6C (Netronix)

Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.100
Host is up (0.00016s latency).
Not shown: 997 closed ports
PORT    STATE SERVICE
53/tcp  open  domain
80/tcp  open  http
389/tcp open  ldap
MAC Address: 6C:62:6D:82:D3:78 (Unknown)

Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.102
Host is up (0.000056s latency).
Not shown: 998 closed ports
PORT   STATE SERVICE
22/tcp open  ssh
80/tcp open  http
MAC Address: 00:30:05:EB:3B:17 (Fujitsu Siemens Computers)

Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.107
Host is up (0.000055s latency).
All 1000 scanned ports on 192.168.204.107 are closed
MAC Address: 00:30:05:EB:39:7B (Fujitsu Siemens Computers)

Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.111 Host is up (0.000054s latency). Not shown: 996 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE 80/tcp open http 139/tcp open netbios-ssn

445/tcp  open  microsoft-ds
6000/tcp open  X11
MAC Address: 00:30:05:EB:38:D6 (Fujitsu Siemens Computers)
Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.114
Host is up (0.000056s latency).
Not shown: 994 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn
445/tcp  open  microsoft-ds
6000/tcp open  X11
MAC Address: 00:30:05:EB:3E:9D (Fujitsu Siemens Computers)
Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.115
Host is up (0.000058s latency).
Not shown: 996 closed ports
PORT    STATE SERVICE
22/tcp  open  ssh
80/tcp  open  http
139/tcp open  netbios-ssn
445/tcp open  microsoft-ds
MAC Address: 00:30:05:EB:37:F4 (Fujitsu Siemens Computers)
Nmap scan report for 192.168.204.118
Host is up (0.0000080s latency).
Not shown: 999 closed ports
PORT   STATE SERVICE
80/tcp open  http

Per veure el OUI

[email protected]:~$ locate oui
/home/rafel/Dropbox/Personal/MP04-LLENGUATGE DE MARQUES/Exercici/Tema 1/A1Pt5 ORIGINAL i SENSE COMPRIMIR/web1/Imatges/The_Fleur de-Lys_Mansion_luxury_inn_at_the_park_Saint_Louis_Missouri_14785.jpg 
/usr/bin/ppmtouil
/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libbonoboui-2.so.0
/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libbonoboui-2.so.0.0.0
/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/liblouis.so.2
/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/liblouis.so.2.2.3
/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/louis
/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/louis-2.3.0.egg-info
/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/louis/__init__.py
/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/louis/__init__.pyc
/usr/share/liblouis
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-0
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-common
/usr/share/doc/liblouis-data
/usr/share/doc/liblouis2
/usr/share/doc/python-louis
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-0/NEWS.gz
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-0/README
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-0/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-0/copyright
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-common/NEWS.gz
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-common/README
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-common/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/libbonoboui2-common/copyright
/usr/share/doc/liblouis-data/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/liblouis-data/copyright
/usr/share/doc/liblouis2/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/liblouis2/copyright
/usr/share/doc/python-louis/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/python-louis/copyright
/usr/share/javazi/America/Kentucky/Louisville
/usr/share/kde4/apps/kgeography/flags/usa_louisiana.png
/usr/share/liblouis/tables
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Cz-Cz-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Es-Es-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Fr-Ca-g2.ctb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Fr-Fr-g2.ctb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Lv-Lv-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Nl-Nl-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Pl-Pl-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/Se-Se-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/UEBC-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/UEBC-g2.ctb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/ar-ar-g1.utb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/as.ctb
/usr/share/liblouis/tables/awa.ctb
etc...

Per veure si la targeta funciona:

[email protected]:~$ sudo mii-tool eth2
eth2: negotiated 1000baseT-HD flow-control, link ok
[email protected]:~$ sudo ethtool eth2
Settings for eth2:
       Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
       Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 
                               100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 
                               1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full 
       Supported pause frame use: No
       Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
       Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 
                               100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 
                               1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full 
       Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric Receive-only
       Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
       Link partner advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 
                                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 
                                            1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full 
       Link partner advertised pause frame use: No
       Link partner advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
       Speed: 1000Mb/s
       Duplex: Full
       Port: MII
       PHYAD: 0
       Transceiver: internal
       Auto-negotiation: on
       Supports Wake-on: pumbg
       Wake-on: g
       Current message level: 0x00000033 (51)
                              drv probe ifdown ifup
       Link detected: yes

base= ample de banda sense modular /recordar que tenim 8 cables i treballem a full dúplex i half duplex per tant estem preparats per treballar al a màxima velocitat que ens permet l'aula

speed= màxima i teòrica: ( 100 màx 90 per exemple) advertaised=el switch i la nostra target a de xarxa negocien la velocitat de la conexió,una cosa es lo que pots i l'altre el que acabes realitzant.

Les targetes ja no necessiten utilitzar el mateix tipus de cable (creuts o no) ja negocien elles el tipus (ja ho configuren elles mateixes.

Per fer les negociacions són impulsos elèctrics no paquets no esperem escoltar paquets.

ETHERNET

  • Protocol més extes a nivell d'enllaç. (mirar wikipèdia.) ETHER = ETER (SUBSTÀNCIA NO FÍSICA QUE SEGONS LES TEORIES ESPÍRITES ESTAVA COMPOSADA L'ÀNIMA.
  • També hi ha terminador
  • Ficar la taula de velocitat de l'ethernet
    • 1 nº velocitat com a màxim.
    • quasi sempre banda base.
    • 3 tipus de cables.
      • (100 base tx un dels més típics) (soporta half i full)
      • (100SX fibra optica) repetidors de senyal.

IEEE gestina l'estandar elèctric i electronic IEEE 802. MAC per evitar colisions.(protocol mac). [email protected]:~$ ifconfig eth2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:30:05:eb:3b:44

         inet addr:192.168.204.118  Bcast:192.168.204.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
         inet6 addr: fe80::230:5ff:feeb:3b44/64 Scope:Link
         UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
         RX packets:212794 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
         TX packets:129794 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
         collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:273633387 (273.6 MB)  TX bytes:9348600 (9.3 MB)
          Interrupt:23 Base address:0x8000 

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback  
          inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:3305 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:3305 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:284999 (284.9 KB)  TX bytes:284999 (284.9 KB)
 
wlan1     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:19:5b:cc:09:0f  
          UP BROADCAST MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

INTERFÍCIES DE XARXA

Físiques

Segments de xarxa i dominis de col·lissió
  • Per exemple de l'AP (accés point wifi) a la targeta de xarxa
  • Repetidor
  • Bridge
  • Router
  • Domini de col·lissió: És un segment lògic de xarxa on els paquets poden col·lisionar al ser enviats a un medi compartit. Paquet de broadcast.
    • Una cosa lògica no físic.
Tipus de Xarxa. Switched LAN. Hubs i Switchs

Les LANs connectades a switchs o HUBS tenen una topologia física d'estrella.

  • Topologia lògica:
    • HUB: mateix segment de xarxa (bus compartit). Treballa a nivell físic (mecànic). Dispositiu “tonto” (dumb)
    • Switch: s'utilitza una base de dades per recordar les MACs (Ips) de cada port i es connecta de forma directa els ports d'origen i destinació d'una comunicació. reballa a nivell d'enllaç (taula de MACS). Dispositiu intel·ligent.
  • LAN Commutada: Cada PC té el seu propi segment de xarxa no compartit. Els switches són més segurs.
Topologies de xarxa

Classificació de les xarxes segons la seva forma:

Introduir la captura de les topologies de la wiki.
Rafelmelichxarxes.png

  • Internet acaba sent xarxes mixtes.


Estrella:

  • Tots els nodes es connecten a un node concentrador
  • Exemple: Ethernet amb RJ-45
  • Avantatges
    • Fàcil d'implementar i d'ampliar
    • Instal·lació ràpida
    • Un error en un node o segment de xarxa no influeix a la resta de la xarxa
    • No hi ha problemes de col·lisió de dades
    • Més seguretat
  • Inconvenients
    • Major longitud de cable i nombre de nodes limitat pel concentrador

Bus:

  • Tots els nodes es connecten a la mateixa línia (bus)
  • Exemple: Ethernet amb cable coaxial
  • Avantatges
    • Fàcil d'instal·lar i requereix de poc cable.
  • Inconvenients
    • El medi de transmissió es compartit. Poden succeir col·lisions i lluites per la utilització del canal de comunicacions
  • Seguretat. Tots els nodes poden accedir a la informació de la resta.

Anell

  • Cada node esta connectat al següent i l'últim al primer
  • Cada node té un receptor i un transmissor i fa la funció de repetidor
  • Exemple: Token Ring
  • Avantatges
    • Poca longitud del cable
  • Inconvenients
    • Si un node falla la xarxa sencera falla.
    • No totes les comunicacions són igual de ràpides
    • Seguretat. Els nodes poden interceptar comunicacions

Altres topologies:

  • Malla: Entre els nodes s'estableixen enllaços punt a punt.Exemple: Xarxes WAN
  • Interconnexió total: És una topologia en malla on tots els nodes estan connectats entre si.
  • Arbre: És una extensió de la topologia en bus. Exemple: xarxes de televisió per cable, troncals fibra òptica i branques amb coaxial
  • Mixta: Xarxes amb combinacions de les topologies anteriors

Posar captures pàgina transparències 75,74,45.

Fitxer:Rafelmelichencapsulament.png

Fitxer:Rafelmelichpàg74.png

Fitxer:Rafelmelichepàg45.png

Capes TCP/IP.

capa aplicació-> capa transport-> capa xarxa-> capa enllaç de dades. la informació


Virtuals

  • IPaliasing= una xarxa virtual té una IP i se li fica un nom.
    • Fa falta que la targeta de xarxa suporti VLAN's.(PPPoe, bonding,)

Vegeu també:

ARP

  • Lobjectiu final es trdauir IP's a MAC's. (N3 a N2).
  • A la següent capa està el DNS.
    • Sempre està traduint (IP's -> MAC, etc....)

ARP REQUEST ARP REPLAY FF:FF:FF:FF -->pregunta --->255.255.255.000 ho envias a totes les màquines de la xarxa i contesta la

Exercici

[email protected]:~$ arp -n
Address                  HWtype  HWaddress           Flags Mask            Iface
192.168.204.1            ether   d4:ca:6d:20:8f:7f   C                     eth2

[email protected]:~$ ip neigh
192.168.204.1 dev eth2 lladdr d4:ca:6d:20:8f:7f REACHABLE

[email protected]:~$ ping 192.168.204.118
PING 192.168.204.118 (192.168.204.118) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.053 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.047 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=3 ttl=64 time=0.041 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=4 ttl=64 time=0.047 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=5 ttl=64 time=0.049 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=6 ttl=64 time=0.049 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=7 ttl=64 time=0.050 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=8 ttl=64 time=0.047 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=9 ttl=64 time=0.043 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=10 ttl=64 time=0.048 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.204.118: icmp_req=11 ttl=64 time=0.050 ms
^C
--- 192.168.204.118 ping statistics ---
11 packets transmitted, 11 received, 0% packet loss, time 9999ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.041/0.047/0.053/0.008 ms

arping

[email protected]:~$ arping
ARPing 2.09, by Thomas Habets <[email protected]>
usage: arping [ -0aAbdDeFpqrRuv ] [ -w <us> ] [ -S <host/ip
              [ -T <host/ip ] [ -s <MAC> ] [ -t <MAC> ] [ -
              [ -i <interface> ] <host/ip/MAC | -B>
For complete usage info, use --help or check the manpage.
[email protected]:~$ sudo arping -c 5 192.168.204.115
[sudo] password for rafel: 
ARPING 192.168.204.115
60 bytes from 00:30:05:eb:37:f4 (192.168.204.115): index=0 time=165.000 usec
60 bytes from 00:30:05:eb:37:f4 (192.168.204.115): index=1 time=89.000 usec
60 bytes from 00:30:05:eb:37:f4 (192.168.204.115): index=2 time=72.000 usec
60 bytes from 00:30:05:eb:37:f4 (192.168.204.115): index=3 time=66.000 usec
60 bytes from 00:30:05:eb:37:f4 (192.168.204.115): index=4 time=68.000 usec
--- 192.168.204.115 statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received,   0% unanswered (0 extra)

tcpdump -ni eth2 arp

[email protected]:~$ sudo tcpdump -ni eth2 arp
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth2, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
20:54:32.577693 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:54:33.577931 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:54:34.578187 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:54:36.694510 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.100 tell 192.168.204.102, length 46
20:54:37.694903 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.100 tell 192.168.204.102, length 46
20:54:38.695263 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.100 tell 192.168.204.102, length 46
20:54:39.695579 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.100 tell 192.168.204.102, length 46
20:54:39.975471 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.118 tell 192.168.204.1, length 46
20:54:39.975496 ARP, Reply 192.168.204.118 is-at 00:30:05:eb:3b:44, length 28
20:54:40.695933 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.100 tell 192.168.204.102, length 46
20:54:52.907653 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.214 tell 192.168.204.1, length 46
20:54:53.907622 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.214 tell 192.168.204.1, length 46
20:54:54.907596 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.214 tell 192.168.204.1, length 46
20:54:57.350170 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:54:58.350502 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:54:59.351029 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:00.351299 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:01.351589 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:02.351854 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:03.352111 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:04.352339 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:05.352594 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:06.352835 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:07.352890 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:08.352822 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:09.352805 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:10.352737 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:10.967213 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.118 tell 192.168.204.1, length 46
20:55:10.967242 ARP, Reply 192.168.204.118 is-at 00:30:05:eb:3b:44, length 28
20:55:11.352709 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:12.352661 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:13.352907 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:14.353158 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:15.353429 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:16.353680 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:17.353939 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:18.354216 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:19.354504 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 tell 192.168.204.100, length 46
20:55:19.499552 ARP, Request who-has 192.168.204.1 (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) tell 192.168.204.207, length 46

PROVA ARP desconfigurant la targeta de ret

[email protected]:~$ sudo dhclient -r -v eth2
Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.1-ESV-R4
Copyright 2004-2011 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/

Listening on LPF/eth2/00:30:05:eb:3b:44
Sending on   LPF/eth2/00:30:05:eb:3b:44 
Sending on   Socket/fallback
DHCPRELEASE on eth2 to 192.168.204.2 port 67

fem un arrping i veiem que no detecta gateway

[email protected]:~$ sudo arping -c 5 192.168.204.1 -0
arping: libnet_init(): libnet_check_iface() ioctl: No such device

posteriorment fem ub tcp dump i no trborà les mac's


arp-scan

[email protected]:~$ sudo arp-scan --interface=eth2 --localnet
Interface: eth2, datalink type: EN10MB (Ethernet)
Starting arp-scan 1.8.1 with 256 hosts (http://www.nta-monitor.com/tools/arp-scan/)
192.168.204.1   d4:ca:6d:20:8f:7f       (Unknown)
192.168.204.2   b6:2b:74:e5:3d:12       (Unknown)
192.168.204.94  00:08:54:a6:7a:6c       Netronix, Inc.
192.168.204.100 6c:62:6d:82:d3:78       Micro-Star INT'L CO., LTD
192.168.204.102 00:30:05:eb:3b:17       Fujitsu Siemens Computers
192.168.204.103 00:30:05:eb:3e:2a       Fujitsu Siemens Computers
192.168.204.111 00:30:05:eb:38:d6       Fujitsu Siemens Computers
192.168.204.115 00:30:05:eb:37:f4       Fujitsu Siemens Computers
192.168.204.201 b8:70:f4:f8:83:3a       COMPAL INFORMATION (KUNSHAN) CO., LTD. 
192.168.204.207 c8:60:00:11:c2:dd       (Unknown)
192.168.204.214 00:24:54:d4:68:92       Samsung Electronics Co., LTD
192.168.204.240 54:e6:fc:c9:bc:9a       TP-LINK TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.
192.168.204.253 94:db:c9:00:0c:c7       (Unknown)
13 packets received by filter, 0 packets dropped by kernel
Ending arp-scan 1.8.1: 256 hosts scanned in 1.346 seconds (190.19 hosts/sec). 13 responded

Comandes nivell Físic/Enllaç

  • Mii-tool
[email protected]:~$ sudo apt-get install mii-tool
[email protected]:~$ sudo mii-tool
eth2: negotiated 1000baseT-HD flow-control, link ok
  • Mii-diag
[email protected]:~$ sudo mii-tool
eth2: negotiated 1000baseT-HD flow-control, link ok
[email protected]:~$ sudo mii-diag eth2
Basic registers of MII PHY #32:  1000 796d 001c c912 0de1 c1e1 000d 2001.
The autonegotiated capability is 01e0.
The autonegotiated media type is 100baseTx-FD.
Basic mode control register 0x1000: Auto-negotiation enabled.
You have link beat, and everything is working OK.
Your link partner advertised c1e1: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx 10baseT-FD 10baseT.
  End of basic transceiver information.


BRIDGE

DEFINICIÓ

  • En informàtica s'utilitza bastant el concepte bridge. Pot fer referència entre d'altres:
  • Bridge: Enllaç de capa física/capa d'enllaç. Els bridges poden ser mateix medi (switch Ethernet) o entre diferents tipus de medi/canals (un AP Wifi en mode bridge converteix senyal WIFI en senyal amb fil)
  • ADSL en mode bridge (ADSL en mode bridge). aka Monopuesto.


CREACIÓ D'UN BRIDGE AMB UNA TARGETA DE XARXA

Creació del bridge:

  • En primer lloc esbrinarem la MAC i l'IP de l'equip on volem crear el bridge a partir d'una simple targeta de ret, per tant:
$ ifconfig
    • Les dades proporcionades per l'equip són le següents:
MAC= 00:21:5a:51:9a:2a
IP= 192.168.204.214
  • Una vegada sabem la MAC i la IP

Per fer un bridge de forma permanent:
Editem l'arxiu interfaces:

$ cat /etc/network/interfaces

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto br0
iface br0 inet static
 address 192.168.1.2
 netmask 255.255.255.0
 gateway 192.168.1.1
 bridge_ports eth0

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet manual

o també de la següent manera:

  • (Suposant que els ports de la targeta siguin eth0 i eth1)
my/etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet manual
iface eth1 inet manual
 
aouto br0
   iface br0 inet dhcp
      bridge_ports eth0 eth1

http://acacha.org/mediawiki/index.php/Bridge-utils#bridge-utils

brctl show

S'anomena bridge transparent a la majoria de bridges:

  • És indectable per les estacione s de treball.
  • Learnning mode, aprenen sols, esnifa els paquets, les xarxes són dinàmiques, de tant en tant caduquen (aging) ,sinó s'ompliraia amb informació del sse pot fer a mà.
  • Lo més importatnt d'un switch és el pps latència.(xip especialitzat)

El gran inconvenient és el broadcast

VLAN

Ethernet
El van inventar la companyia Xerox el 1972. Inventors de múltiples com l'ordinador Xerox Alto (Ordinador personal) al 1973 al Xerox Parck ie l concepte de interficies gràfiques (finestres, icones).
Era un sistema que treballava per rellotge (síncron). 1,94 Mb/s.
Van anomenar Ethernet inspirats amb el concepte aeter, quinta suposada substància (terra, aigua, foc, aire i eter) de caire "espiritual" segons la teosofia, i d'altres corrents para-científiques del segle XIX inspirades amb teories presocràtiques clàssiques.